Coronary heart disease: UK’s biggest killer.

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Coronary heart disease (CHD) is
arguably the the UK’s biggest killer. CHD develops when the blood supply to the muscles and tissues of the heart becomes obstructed by the build-up of fatty materials inside the walls of the coronary arteries.

What is coronary heart disease?
Your heart is a pump the size of a fist that sends oxygen-rich blood around your body. The blood travels to the organs of your body through blood vessels known as
arteries, and returns to the heart through veins.
Your heart needs its own blood supply to keep working. Heart disease occurs when the arteries that carry this blood, known as
coronary arteries, start to become blocked by a build-up of fatty deposits.

How common is CHD?
CHD causes round 74,000 deaths each year. That’s an average of 200 people every day.
In the UK, there are an estimated 2.3 million people living with the condition.
About one in six men and one in nine women die from the disease.
Death rates are highest in Scotland and northern England
In the past couple of decades, however, deaths from CHD have nearly halved due to better treatments.

The inner lining of the coronary arteries gradually becomes furred with a thick, porridge-like sludge of substances, known as plaques, and formed from cholesterol.
This clogging-up process is known as atherosclerosis.
The plaques narrow the arteries and reduce the space through which blood can flow.
They can also block nutrients being delivered to the artery walls, which means the arteries lose their elasticity. In turn, this can lead to high blood pressure, which also increases the risk of heart disease. This same process goes on in the arteries throughout the body, and can lead to high blood pressure which puts further strain on the heart.
If your arteries are partially blocked you can experience angina- severe chest pains that can spread across your upper body as your heart struggles to keep beating on a restricted supply of oxygen. You are also at greater risk of a heart attack.
Some people have a higher risk of
developing atherosclerosis due to genetic factors – one clue to this is a family history of heart disease in middle-age.
Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include an unhealthy diet, lack of exercise, diabetes, high blood pressure and, most importantly, smoking.

What happens during a heart attack?
A heart attack happens when one of the coronary arteries becomes completely blocked. This usually happens when a plaque, which is already narrowing an artery, cracks or splits open. This triggers
the formation of a blood clot around the plaque, and it is this blood clot that then completely blocks the artery.
With their supply of oxygen completely blocked, the heart muscle and tissue supplied by that artery start to die.
Emergency medical intervention is needed to unblock the artery and restore blood flow. This may consist of treatment with drugs to dissolve the clot or thrombus, or a
small operation done through the skin and blood vessels to open up the blocked artery.
The outcome of a heart attack hinges on the amount of the muscle that dies before it is corrected. The smaller the area
affected, the greater the chance of survival and recovery.
While a heart attack will always cause some permanent damage, some areas may be able to recover if they are not deprived of
blood for too long. The sooner a heart attack is diagnosed and treated, the greater the chance of recovery.

Prevention of Coronary Heart disease.
    CHD is relatively common because it can be caused by ‘popular but unhealthy’ lifestyle. The major way of preventing this heart disease is by taking steps toward a heart-healthy lifestyle . A heart-healthy lifestyle can also help you reduce risk factors such
as high cholesterol and high blood pressure.
       •• Lifestyle changes••
• Quit smoking. ALSO avoid secondhand smoke too. Quitting
smoking may be the best thing you can do to prevent heart disease.

• Exercise . There are lots of ways that exercise boosts your heart health. It can improve cholesterol and blood pressure. It can also help you reach a healthy weight . Talk to your doctor before starting an exercise program to
make sure that it’s safe for you.

• Eat a heart-healthy diet . The way you eat can help you control your cholesterol and blood pressure.

• Stay at a healthy weight . Being active and eating healthy foods can help you stay at a healthy weight or lose weight if you need to.
You can also read about the risks of heart disease… check out reliable statistics here Healthline.com

~ References: BBC.com/science
                       WebMD

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